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——中国科学院办院方针

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時間:2022-08-16 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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雁塔战疫小故事|社区医院来提醒 街办小区派车忙 一岁宝宝打上疫苗了!******        

宋瑛在电話中了解了小孩最近身体状况、服药史等及其与宝宝同住父母的流行病学史、抗体检测、行程安排码、一码通等状况后,通告沈翠带娃前去注射。

“可是住在封控区,我俩爸带娃出不上住宅小区呀!”这也是沈翠最担忧的事,她赶忙向小区反映问题。长延堡街道办汇铭小区支部书记、居委会主任臧桀说:“社区觉得这也是独特就诊要求,只差二天,务必要达到。大家向街道办事处汇报状况,经包抓部长杨璇融洽联络,在保证合乎卫生防疫规定的条件下,分配了青年志愿者的私车,全过程点到点闭环控制专车接送她们全家人。”。

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13日中午,沈翠一家在社区卫生核心大门口,依照疫防相关要求,检查了一码通、行程安排码、抗体检测結果,并填好保证书,再度了解核查流行病学史、定居史等状况。接着,医师为小孩完成了第三剂次的疫苗接种。“医师嘱咐大家遵循注射常见问题,留观半小时后,青年志愿者的车还一直等大家,送我们回家了,太暖了!”。

臧桀详细介绍,街道办事处、小区创立了由5人构成的扶持救护工作组,“人民群众有一切就诊、采购要求,大家都是会在工作组微信群聊归纳,逐步汇报,协调解决的,每日处理100余件相近问题。”。

据了解,1月7日至今,西安雁塔区12家社区卫生核心总计医院门诊问诊458人,线上咨询1164人,慢性疾病就诊配药114人,计划免疫资询具体指导3217余人次,共建立21支救助队,进行60次上门服务送诊服务项目,127次上门服务送药上门服务项目。

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陕西2022年高考艺考招生:省内院校音乐类舞蹈类专业课校考实行校际联考******

  华商报讯(记者 彭宏)10月27日,陕西省教育考试院和省招生办公布《2022年陕西省普通高等学校艺术类专业考试招生工作的通知》(以下简称《通知》)明确:2022年艺考我省美术类专业课、播音编导类专业基础课实行全省统考;在陕部属院校及陕西省属院校(简称省内院校)音乐类、舞蹈类专业课校考实行省内院校校际联考;其他艺术类专业课由招生院校自行组织校考。

  美术类播音编导类专业考试11月30日起网上报名

  《通知》要求,我省明确报考艺术类专业的考生,必须参加我省普通高校招生全国统考报名并参加高考文化课全国统考,报考科类只能选择为艺术(文)或艺术(理)。

  美术类专业课、播音编导类专业基础课统考分别由西安美术学院、西北大学组织实施。拟报考美术类、播音编导类专业的考生,须于2021年11月30日8时至12月2日18时使用高考报名号及密码登录陕西省教育考试院门户网站或陕西招生考试信息网,完成专业课统考报名及缴费,缴费方式与高考网上报名相同,报名结束后不受理考生补报名或统考科类变更申请。

  音乐类、舞蹈类专业课省内院校校际联考,由西安音乐学院牵头组织实施。拟报考省内院校音乐类、舞蹈类专业的考生须于2021年12月25日至31日登录西安音乐学院网站查询报名及考试安排,并按有关要求完成报名程序。

  报名时,考生必须携带本人第二代居民身份证和艺术类专业课考试报考证。

  美术类播音编导类专业课考试12月12日 举行

  《通知》明确,美术类专业课统考2021年12月12日在西安欧亚学院、西安培华学院进行,考试科目为:素描、色彩、速写,各科考试时间为:素描、色彩各

  3小时,速写30分钟。每科满分值100分,总分300分。

  播音编导类专业基础课笔试统考2021年12月12日在西北大学进行。笔试统考为闭卷考试,时长150分钟,满分值150分。考试内容包括文艺常识、专业动态信息、专业基础知识、视听语言技能、写作等内容。

  音乐类、舞蹈类专业课省内院校校际联考报名考试办法由西安音乐学院负责制定并向社会公布,艺术类专业课校考实施办法由各招生院校负责制定并向社会公布。

  招生院校使用艺术类专业省级统考联考成绩有要求

  除经教育部批准的部分独立设置的本科艺术院校(含部分艺术类本科专业参照执行的少数高校)外,高校的美术类专业,录取时直接使用我省美术类统考成绩,招生院校不得组织专业课校考。

  高校的播音编导类专业可根据本校专业培养目标要求,在全省专业基础课统考合格的基础上组织校考;省内院校(不含经教育部批准的部分独立设置的本科艺术院校)的音乐类、舞蹈类专业录取时使用省内院校校际联考成绩,不得组织校考。

  招收美术类、播音编导类专业的招生院校不得接受我省统考不合格考生参加校考,不得录取统考成绩不合格的考生。统考成绩不合格考生参加院校相应专业组织的校考,其校考成绩一律无效。音乐类、舞蹈类专业课省内院校校际联考成绩只适用于省内院校录取。

  摄影、书法学等专业未列入我省美术类专业课统考目录,由招生院校组织校考,或申请在我省美术类专业课统考合格的基础上组织校考,也可申请使用我省美术类专业课统考成绩录取。

  高校艺术类专业课校考原则上在学校所在地组织。

  艺考生本、专科志愿均安排在提前批次填报    录取分段进行

  艺术类专业录取分段进行,艺术类本科分A段、B段、C段三段;艺术类专科分A段、B段二段。其中,艺术类本科A段、C段、艺术类专科B段实行梯度志愿模式;艺术类本科B段、专科A段实行平行志愿模式。具体分段志愿院校设置及录取模式,可登录陕西招生考试信息网查询。

  艺术类考生本、专科志愿均安排在提前批次填报。专业课统考合格考生,方可填报使用相应统考成绩录取的院校及专业。

  艺术类专业录取在单设本科批次录取前完成,按照艺术类本科A段、B段、C段;艺术类专科A段、B段的顺序依次投档录取。计划未完成时,采取征集志愿的方式进行补充。未被艺术类专业录取的考生,可根据本人成绩参加提前批次之后相应批次的录取。

  省内院校不同专业类型录取规则不同   鼓励招生院校提高文化课要求

  按照《通知》要求,省内院校不同专业类型录取规则不同。

  省内院校(不含经教育部批准的部分独立设置的本科艺术院校)的艺术类专业录取规则为:在考生高考文化课成绩和专业课成绩均合格的基础上,播音编导类专业按照高考文化课成绩及位次从高到低录取,考生位次相同时按专业课成绩由高到低依次录取;美术类、音乐类、舞蹈类专业及其他艺术类专业的录取规则为按照专业课成绩从高分到低分录取,专业课成绩相同时按高考文化课成绩及位次由高到低依次录取;

  《通知》强调, 各艺术类专业均不得采取将高考文化课和专业课成绩各自按一定比例折算形成综合成绩的方式排序录取。

  《通知》明确,除经教育部批准的部分独立设置的本科艺术院校的艺术类本科专业外,其它所有高校艺术类本、专科专业的高考文化课成绩最低录取控制分数线由省招委会根据教育部相关规定划定。鼓励各招生院校进一步提高考生文化课成绩录取要求。


来源:华商网-华商报

编辑:报社方正

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西安一男子常到时装店下手阔绰 宣称沙场增资扩股骗走女老板8万******

\

  “我以为他要带我挣钱,想不到骗了我8万元。”杨女士说。

  杨女士是西安临潼区某化妆品店老总。今年初,男人王某经常会到店里来选购服饰,且下手阔绰从来不讨价还价。一来二去,杨女士和王某熟识起來。

  7月,王某再度到店购买衣服,不知不觉向杨女士表露了自个的沙场必须增资扩股,杨女士马上表明想要入股投资。

  迅速,王某便拿着有关办理手续赶到店里,杨女士在认证后,将8万汪义转至了另一方,彼此承诺挣钱以后五五分账。

  11月中下旬,杨女士发觉,王某的电話早已联络不上。11月20日,杨女士前去西安公安西安临潼大队地铁站公安局报警,出警后,地铁站公安局协同公安机关西安临潼大队刑侦队迅速开展工作中。11月30日将王某子逮铺。

  经审问,王某口供了自身精心策划,以沙场增资扩股为由骗领其金钱的案情,杨女士接到的有关办理手续,全是王某仿冒的。

  现阶段,王某因涉嫌诈骗被警察依规刑拘。

  华商报小编 赵志康 陈思存。



来源于:华商网-华商报。

编缉:方方正正。

双语热点:你想过吗?如果所有的病毒都消失了******

病毒的存在似乎只是为了给社会带来灾难,给人类带来痛苦。在数千年的时间里,病毒夺去了无数人的生命,当前的新冠病毒只是一系列持续致命病毒攻击中的其中一个。但是你想过没有,如果所有的病毒都消失了,世界到底会发生什么呢?

If all viruses disappeared, the world would be very different — and not necessarily for the better. But what exactly would happen?

如果所有的病毒都消失了,世界将会大不相同,不一定会变得更好。但是,到底会发生什么呢?

Viruses seem to exist solely to wreak havoc on society and bring suffering to humanity. They have cost untold lives over the millennia, often knocking out significant chunks of the global population – from the 1918 influenza epidemic which killed 50 to 100 million people to the estimated 200 million who died from smallpox in the 20th Century alone. The current Covid-19 pandemic is just one in a series of ongoing and never-ending deadly viral assaults.

病毒的存在似乎只是为了给社会带来灾难,给人类带来痛苦。在数千年的时间里,病毒夺去了无数人的生命,占全球很大一部分人口。1918年大流感导致5000至1亿人死亡,到了20世纪,天花估计夺去了2亿人的生命。当前的新冠病毒大流行只是一系列持续致命病毒攻击中的其中一个。

If given the choice to magically wave a wand and cause all viruses to disappear, most people would probably jump at that opportunity, especially now. Yet this would be a deadly mistake – deadlier, in fact, than any virus could ever be.

如果可以选择用魔法,挥动魔杖让所有病毒消失,那么很多人可以生存下来,尤其是现在。但这将是一个致命的错误——比任何病毒都要致命。

“If all viruses suddenly disappeared, the world would be a wonderful place for about a day and a half, and then we’d all die – that’s the bottom line,” says Tony Goldberg, an epidemiologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “All the essential things they do in the world far outweigh the bad things.”

“如果所有的病毒都突然消失了,世界的美好将持续约一天半,然后我们都会死亡——这是底线,”威斯康辛-麦迪逊大学(University of Wisconsin-Madison)的流行病学家托尼·戈德堡(Tony Goldberg)说。“病毒在这个世界上的重要性远超过其做过的坏事。”

The vast majority of viruses are not pathogenic to humans, and many play integral roles in propping up ecosystems. Others maintain the health of individual organisms – everything from fungi and plants to insects and humans. “We live in a balance, in a perfect equilibrium”, and viruses are a part of that, says Susana Lopez Charretón, a virologist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. “I think we’d be done without viruses.”

绝大多数病毒对人类没有致病性,许多病毒在支撑生态系统方面发挥着不可或缺的作用。另一些病毒可以维持生物有机体的健康,包括真菌、植物、昆虫和人类等一切事物。墨西哥国立自治大学(National Autonomous University of Mexico)的病毒学家苏珊·沙勒东(Susana Lopez Charreton)说:“我们生活在平衡中,一个完美的平衡”,而病毒就是其中一部分。“我认为没有病毒人类就灭绝了。”

Most people are not aware of the role viruses play in supporting much of life on Earth, because we tend to focus only on the ones that cause humanity trouble. Nearly all virologists solely study pathogens; only recently have a few intrepid researchers begun investigating the viruses that keep us and the planet alive, rather than kill us.

大多数人都没有意识到病毒在支撑地球上许多生命方面所扮演的角色,因为我们往往只关注那些给人类带来麻烦的病毒。几乎所有的病毒学家都只研究病原体。直到最近,一些勇敢的研究人员才开始研究那些让人类和地球生存下来的病毒,而不是杀死我们的病毒。

“It’s a small school of scientists who are trying to provide a fair and balanced view of the world of viruses, and to show that there are such things as good viruses,” Goldberg says.

戈德堡说:“有一小部分科学家,他们试图对病毒的世界提供一个公平和平衡的观点,并证明有益类病毒存在。”

What scientists know for sure is that without viruses, life and the planet as we know it would cease to exist. And even if we wanted to, it would probably be impossible to annihilate every virus on Earth. But by imagining what the world would be like without viruses, we can better understand not only how integral they are to our survival, but also how much we still have to learn about them.

科学家可以肯定的是,如果没有病毒,生命和我们所知道的地球将不复存在。即使人类想要消灭地球上的每一种病毒,也是不可能的。通过想象没有病毒的世界会是什么样子,我们不仅可以更好地理解病毒对我们的生存是多么重要,也可以更好地知道还有很多需要了解的东西。

For a start, researchers do not know how many viruses even exist. Thousands have been formally classified, but millions may be out there. “We’ve discovered only a small fraction because people haven’t looked much,” says Marilyn Roossinck, a virus ecologist at Penn State University. “It’s just bias – the science has always been about the pathogens.”

首先,研究人员不知道有多少病毒存在。数千的病毒已经被正式分类,但可能还有数百万病毒未被分类。宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State University)的病毒生态学家玛丽莲·罗斯辛克(Marilyn Roossinck)说:“人类只发现了一小部分病毒,因为人们没有仔细观察。对于科学一直是关于病原体的学科,是一种偏见。”

Nor do scientists know what percentage of total viruses are problematic toward humans. “If you looked numerically, it would be statistically close to zero,” says Curtis Suttle, an environmental virologist at the University of British Columbia. “Almost all viruses out there are not pathogenic to things we care about.”

科学家也不知道病毒整体中有多少对人类有害。英国哥伦比亚大学(University of British Columbia)的环境病毒学家柯蒂斯·苏特尔(Curtis Suttle)说:“如果从统计学角度上看,这个数字接近于零。几乎所有的病毒对我们所关心的东西都没有致病性。”

Key to ecosystems

生态系统的关键

What we do know is that phages, or the viruses that infect bacteria, are extremely important. Their name comes from the Greek phagein, meaning “to devour” – and devour they do. “They are the major predators of the bacterial world,” Goldberg says. “We would be in deep trouble without them.”

我们知道,噬菌体,即感染细菌的病毒,是极其重要的。它们的名字来自希腊语“phagein”,意思是“吞噬”——确实吞噬了。“它们是细菌世界的主要捕食者,”戈德堡说。“如果没有它们,人类就会陷入大麻烦。”

Phages are the primary regulator of bacterial populations in the ocean, and likely in every other ecosystem on the planet as well. If viruses suddenly disappeared, some bacterial populations would likely explode; others might be outcompeted and stop growing completely.

噬菌体是海洋中细菌种群的主要调节器,在地球上的其他生态系统中也可能如此。如果病毒突然消失,一些细菌种群可能会爆炸;其他细菌种群可能会在物种竞争中被击败,完全停止成长。

This would be especially problematic in the ocean, where more than 90% of all living material, by weight, is microbial. Those microbes produce about half the oxygen on the planet – a process enabled by viruses.

这在海洋中尤其成问题,因为海洋中90%以上的生物都是微生物。这些微生物产生了地球上大约一半的氧气,这一过程是由病毒促成的。

These viruses kill about 20% of all oceanic microbes, and about 50% of all oceanic bacteria, each day. By culling microbes, viruses ensure that oxygen-producing plankton have enough nutrients to undertake high rates of photosynthesis, ultimately sustaining much of life on Earth. “If we don’t have death, then we have no life, because life is completely dependent on recycling of materials,” Suttle says. “Viruses are so important in terms of recycling.”

这些病毒每天杀死20%的海洋微生物和50%的海洋细菌。通过淘汰微生物,病毒确保产氧浮游生物有足够的营养进行高速率的光合作用,最终维持地球上的大部分生命。“如果没有死亡,人类就没有生命,因为生命完全依赖于物质的循环,”苏特尔说。“病毒在物种循环方面非常重要。”

Researchers studying insect pests also have found that viruses are critical for species population control. If a certain species becomes overpopulated, “a virus will come through and wipe them out”, Roossinck says. “It’s a very natural part of ecosystems.” This process, called “kill the winner”, is common in many other species as well, including our own – as evidenced by pandemics. “When populations become very abundant, viruses tend to replicate very rapidly and knock that population down, creating space for everything else to live,” Suttle says. If viruses suddenly disappeared, competitive species likely would flourish to the detriment of others.

研究害虫的研究人员还发现,病毒对种群控制至关重要。如果某一物种总数过剩,“一种病毒就会出现并消灭它们”,罗斯辛克说。“这是生态系统中非常自然的一部分”。这个被称为“杀死赢家”的过程在许多其他物种中也很常见,包括人类——大流行病就是明证。苏特尔说:“当种群数量非常丰富时,病毒倾向于快速复制并摧毁种群,为其他物种创造生存空间。”如果病毒突然消失,有竞争力的物种可能会在损害其他物种的情况下繁荣发展。

“We’d rapidly lose a lot of the biodiversity on the planet,” Suttle says. “We’d have a few species just take over and drive out everything else.”

“我们会迅速失去地球上的许多生物多样性,”苏特尔说。“会有一些物种占据上风,把其他物种都赶走。”

Some organisms also depend on viruses for survival, or to give them an edge in a competitive world. Scientists suspect, for example, that viruses play important roles in helping cows and other ruminants turn cellulose from grass into sugars that can be metabolised and ultimately turned into body mass and milk.

一些生物体也依赖病毒生存,或者在竞争中获得优势。例如,科学家质疑,在帮助奶牛和其他反刍动物将草中的纤维素转化为可代谢的糖,并最终转化为体重和牛奶的过程中,病毒发挥了重要作用。

Researchers likewise think that viruses are integral for maintaining healthy microbiomes in the bodies of humans and other animals. “These things are not well understood, but we’re finding more and more examples of this close interaction of viruses being a critical part of ecosystems, whether it’s our human ecosystem or the environment,” Suttle says.

研究人员同样认为,病毒对于维持人和其他动物体内健康的微生物群落是不可或缺的。苏特尔说:“这些事情还没有被很好地理解,但是我们发现了越来越多的例子,表明这种病毒之间密切的相互作用是生态系统的重要组成部分,无论是人类的生态系统,还是环境。”

Roossinck and her colleagues have discovered concrete evidence supporting this. In one study, they examined a fungus that colonises a specific grass in Yellowstone National Park. They found that a virus that infects that fungus allows the grass to become tolerant to geothermal soil temperatures. “When all three are there – the virus, fungi and plant – then the plants can grow in really hot soils,” Roossinck says. “The fungus alone doesn’t do it.”

罗斯辛克和她的同事们已经发现了支持这一观点的具体证据。在一项研究中,他们检测了一种寄生在黄石国家公园特定草地上的真菌。他们发现,一种感染真菌的病毒使草变得对地热土壤温度具有耐受性。“当病毒、真菌和植物这三种物质都存在时,植物就可以在炎热的土壤中生长,”罗斯辛克说。“光有真菌是做不到的。”

In another case study, Roossinck found that a virus passed through jalapeno seeds allows infected plants to deter aphids. “Aphids are more attracted to plants that don’t have the virus, so it’s definitely beneficial,” Roossinck says.

在另一个案例研究中,罗斯辛克发现,一种通过墨西哥胡椒种子传播的病毒可以使被感染的植物阻止蚜虫。“蚜虫更喜欢不携带病毒的植物,所以这绝对是有益的,”罗斯辛克说。

She and her colleagues have discovered that plants and fungi commonly pass viruses from generation to generation. While they have yet to pinpoint the function of most of those viruses, they assume the viruses must somehow be helping their hosts. “Otherwise, why would plants hang on to them?” Roossinck says. If all of those beneficial viruses disappeared, plants and other organisms that host them would likely become weaker or even die.

她和同事们还发现,植物和真菌通常会将病毒代代相传。虽然他们还没有确定大多数病毒的功能,但认为这些病毒一定是在以某种方式帮助它们的宿主。“否则,植物为什么要抓住它们呢?” 罗斯辛克说。如果所有这些有益病毒都消失了,寄主它们的植物和其他生物体很可能会变得虚弱甚至死亡。

Protective to humans

保护人类

Infection with certain benign viruses even can help to ward off some pathogens among humans.

某些良性病毒的感染甚至可以帮助人类抵御某些病原体。

GB virus C, a common blood-born human virus that is a non-pathogenic distant relative of West Nile virus and dengue fever, is linked to delayed progression to Aids in HIV-positive people. Scientists also found that GB virus C seems to make people infected with Ebola less likely to die.

GB病毒C型是一种常见的人类血液病毒,是西尼罗河病毒和登革热的非致病性远亲,它与HIV阳性人群的艾滋病延迟进展有关。科学家们还发现,GB病毒C型似乎可以降低感染埃博拉病毒的人的死亡率。

Likewise, herpes makes mice less susceptible to certain bacterial infections, including the bubonic plague and listeria (a common type of food poisoning). Infecting people with herpesvirus, bubonic plague and listeria to replicate the mouse experiment would be unethical, but the study’s authors suspect that their findings in rodents likely apply to humans.

同样,疱疹使老鼠不易受到某些细菌感染,包括黑死病和李斯特菌(一种常见的食物中毒)。让人感染疱疹病毒、黑死病和李斯特菌来复制老鼠实验是不道德的,但该研究的作者认为他们在啮齿动物身上的发现可能适用于人类。

While lifelong infection with herpesviruses “are commonly viewed as solely pathogenic,” they write, their data suggest that herpes in fact enters into a “symbiotic relationship” with its host by conferring immune benefits. Without viruses, we and many other species might be more prone to succumbing to other diseases.

这些科学家们写道,虽然终生感染疱疹病毒“通常被认为只是致病性的”,但数据表明,疱疹实际上通过赋予免疫益处与宿主进入了一种“共生关系”。没有病毒,我们和许多其他物种可能更容易死于其他疾病。

Viruses are also some of the most promising therapeutic agents for treating certain maladies. Phage therapy, the subject of considerable research in the Soviet Union as far back as the 1920s, uses viruses to target bacterial infections. It’s now a quickly growing field – not only because of increasing antibiotic resistance, but also because of the ability to fine-tune treatments to knock out specific bacterial species rather than indiscriminately wipe our entire bacterial populations, as antibiotics do.

病毒也是治疗某些疾病最有希望的药物之一。噬菌体疗法早在20世纪20年代的苏联就有大量的研究,它使用病毒来靶向细菌感染。现在这是一个快速发展的领域——不仅因为抗生素耐药性的增加,还因为有能力微调治疗来消灭特定的细菌种类,而不是像抗生素那样不加选择地消灭整个细菌种群。

“Quite a number of lives have been saved by using viruses when antibiotics have failed,” Suttle says. Oncolytic viruses, or ones that selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, are also increasingly being explored as a less toxic and more efficient cancer treatment. Whether targeting harmful bacteria or cancer cells, therapeutic viruses act “like little microscopic guided missiles that go in and blow up the cells we don’t want”, Goldberg says. “We need viruses for a suite of research and technology development efforts that are going to lead us into the next generation of therapeutics.”

苏特尔说:“当抗生素不起作用时,相当一部分人的生命被病毒所拯救。”溶瘤病毒,即选择性感染和摧毁癌细胞的病毒,也越来越多地作为一种毒性更小、更有效的癌症治疗方法被探索。戈德堡说,无论是针对有害细菌还是癌细胞,治疗性病毒的作用“就像微型制导导弹,进入并炸毁我们不想要的细胞”。“我们需要病毒来进行一系列的研究和技术开发,从而引领我们进入下一代疗法。”

Because they are constantly replicating and mutating, viruses also hold a massive repository of genetic innovation that other organisms can incorporate. Viruses replicate by inserting themselves into host cells and hijacking their replication tools. If this happens in a germline cell (eggs and sperm), the viral code can be passed on to the next generation and become permanently integrated. “All organisms that can be infected with viruses have an opportunity to suck up viral genes and use them to their advantage,” Goldberg says. “The insertion of new DNA into genomes is a major mode of evolution.” The disappearance of viruses, in other words, would impact the evolutionary potential for all life on the planet – including Homo sapiens.

由于病毒不断复制和变异,它们也拥有大量的基因创新,可以被其他生物吸收。病毒通过将自己插入宿主细胞并劫持它们的复制工具进行复制。如果这种情况发生在生殖系细胞(卵子和精子)中,病毒代码可以传递给下一代,成为永久的结合。“所有能被病毒感染的生物体都有机会吸收病毒基因并利用它们的优势,”戈德堡说。“将新的DNA插入基因组是进化的一种主要模式”。换句话说,病毒的消失将影响地球上所有生命的进化潜力,包括人类。

Viral elements account for an estimated 8% of the human genome, and mammalian genomes in general are peppered with around 100,000 remnants of genes originating from viruses. Viral code often manifests as inert pieces of DNA, but sometimes it confers new and useful – even essential – functions. In 2018, for example, two research teams independently made a fascinating discovery. A gene of viral origin encodes for a protein that plays a key role in long-term memory formation by moving information between cells in the nervous system.

据估计,病毒成分占人类基因组的8%,而哺乳动物基因组中通常散布着大约10万个源自病毒的残余基因。病毒代码通常表现为惰性的DNA片段,但有时它会赋予新的、有用的,甚至是必要的功能。例如,在2018年,两个研究团队分别做出了惊人的发现。一种源自病毒的基因编码了一种蛋白质,这种蛋白质通过在神经系统的细胞间传递信息,在长期记忆的形成中发挥关键作用。

The most striking example, though, relates to the evolution of the mammalian placenta and the timing of gene expression in human pregnancy. Evidence indicates that we owe our ability to have live births to a bit of genetic code that was co-opted from ancient retroviruses that infected our ancestors more than 130 million years ago. As the authors of that 2018 discovery wrote in PLOS Biology: “It is tempting to speculate that human pregnancy would be very different – perhaps even nonexistent – were it not for eons of retroviral pandemics afflicting our evolutionary ancestors.”

然而,最惊人的例子与哺乳动物胎盘的进化和人类怀孕时基因表达的时间有关。有证据表明,人类之所以能活下来,是因为人类的遗传密码来自于1.3亿年前感染人类祖先的古逆转录病毒。2018年这一发现的作者们在《公共科学图书馆·生物学》(PLOS Biology)杂志上写道:“令人震惊的是,如果不是逆转录病毒大流行折磨着我们进化的祖先,人类的怀孕将会非常不同,甚至可能不存在。”

Experts believe that such signatures occur throughout all forms of multi-cellular life. “There are likely many functions that remain unknown,” Suttle says.

专家认为,这种特征在所有形式的多细胞生命中都存在。苏特尔说:“很可能还有许多功能尚未所知。”

Scientists have only just begun to discover the ways that viruses help to sustain life, because they have only just begun to look. Ultimately, though, the more we learn about all viruses, not just the pathogens, the better equipped we will be to harness certain viruses for good and to develop defenses against others that could lead to the next pandemic.

科学家们刚刚发现了病毒维持生命的方式,因为研究刚刚开始。但最终,我们对所有病毒(不仅仅是病原体)了解得越多,我们就能更好地驾驭某些病毒,并对可能导致下一次大流行的其他病毒形成防御。

More than that, learning more about the wealth of viral diversity will help us unlock a deeper understanding of how our planet, ecosystems and very bodies work. As Suttle says, “We need to invest some effort in trying to figure out what’s out there, just for our own good.”

更重要的是,了解更多关于病毒多样性的知识,有助于我们更深入地了解地球、生态系统和人体的运作方式。正如苏特尔所说,“为了人类自己的利益,我们需要投入一些精力去弄明白。”

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